This edited book focuses on the application and implementation of bioremediation and other strategies to create a sustainable and healthy environment. It provides a collection of approaches to environmental biotechnology for wastewater treatment, removal of soil heavy metals, degradation of pesticides, removal of dyes, waste management, and microbial conversion of environmental pollutants. This book brings to the fore contributions of certain globally important environmental biotechnologist. Bioremediation is a popular branch of biotechnology that involves the use of living organisms such as microorganisms (microbial remediation), bacteria, fungus (mycoremediation), and plants (phytoremediation) to bind, extract, and clean up contaminants, pollutants, and toxins from soil, groundwater, and other environments. This book is of interest to researchers, scientists, and academic faculty in environmental sciences. Also, it serves as additional reading and reference material for undergraduate and graduate students as well as postdocs in environmental, agriculture, ecology, and soil sciences. National and International policy makers will also find valuable information from this book.