This book examines the extensive changes in markets, technologies and value chains that telecommunication companies are currently confronted with. It analyzes the crossroads they have reached and the choices that now need to be made - to be a bit pipe or a trendsetter of digitalization. Based on an analysis of the key challenges for telcos, the book derives future market scenarios and puts forward recommendations for how they can successfully position themselves. It proposes a framework based on seven “levers,” which addresses concrete measures in each step of the value chain, ranging from technology, IT and processes, to innovation, marketing and sales issues. The book discusses the current challenges and provides both general recommendations and concrete solutions. Respected experts illustrate innovative strategic and technical trends and provide insights gained in real-life transformation projects. Recent developments in the areas of regulation, product development, competition between over-the-top (OTT) providers and telcos, as well as technical innovations like 5G, SDN/NFV, LEO satellites and MEC are discussed. Accordingly, practitioners, managers and researchers alike will benefit from the book’s wealth of examples and up-to-date insights.