This book is a compass for resource rich-developing countries, taking Mongolia as a case study. Policy aspects of the development of the mining sector in developing countries such as Mongolia and its impact on the economy and society are reviewed. The book deals with specific industry policies and challenges identified by policy makers, its characteristics and policy recommendations moving forward with an emphasis on the importance of evidence-based policy making (EBPM). It begins with the country’s development strategy and the role of the mining industry, highlighting the fact that major strategic and policy documents still suffer from ambiguity and clear guidance as well as gaps in policy directions. The book also highlights the need for policy makers to improve transparency initiatives. Authors emphasize transparency or lack thereof in mining contracts, taxation, trading, and marketing and provide specific policy recommendations and alternative policy actions. The macroeconomic and social impact of the mining sector and the role of foreign direct investment is also discussed. Particularly, utilizing in-house economic analytical tools, the role and impact of resource revenue management policy in Mongolia is evaluated. Further, the impact of mining projects on the livelihood of local households as well as the importance of obtaining a social license to operate is discussed. This monograph is recommended for readers who want an in-depth comprehensive understanding of the mining sector, EBPM, and key lessons learned in managing natural resources in Mongolia.